General and special physical training "Sports Murmansk
Physical training is carried out in order to improve health, increasing the functional readiness of the body, improving the physical development, improvement of physical qualities, forming motor skills and skills, as well as achieving high sports results.
Physical preparation can be worn both in general (general physical training) and aimed at a certain type of activity (special physical training).
This is the process of upbringing the physical qualities and the formation of vital motor skills and skills aimed at the comprehensive and harmonious physical development of a person. Promotes increased overall performance. She prepares a person to any type of activity and is the basis for special physical training, which contributes to the achievement of high results in a favorite sport or work activity.
The value of general physical preparation to achieve a targeted goal can be illustrated in the following example. In 2004, 7 enthusiasts in the summer passed 550 km through the doodle. During the sand, the sand was heated to 80 °, so they went at night. Prices of the transition developed the following tests to determine the degree of its physical fitness: pressing from the floor - 60 times, pulling up - 25 times, squatting on two legs - up to 300 times, squatting on one leg - up to 40 times.
As part of basic physical education, it is necessary to ensure the harmonious development of all muscle groups of the human motor apparatus. Much attention is paid to the upbringing of general endurance. To assess the total endurance, a test developed by American physiologist Cooper is used. The criterion is overcome distance in 12 minutes. The longer distance runs (transitions for walking) man, the one is rushing.
Good indicators for students of student age is to overcome the distance of 2.4-2.7 km for young men and 1.9- 2.3 km for girls.
General physical training must be built in such a way as to fully use a positive transfer and exclude negative.
For example, athletes of speed-power species (throws, jumpers, etc.) in general physical training, exercises with burdens, than athletes of cyclic species, for example, steamer runners or cyclists are used. - This is the process of upbringing the physical qualities and the formation of motor skills and skills that meet the specifics of the selected sport or activity.
In its direction, all types of special physical training can be reduced to two main groups - sports training and professionally - applied preparation.
In the process of sports training, a number of tasks are solved. One of them is the maximum possible development of physical abilities, which significantly depends the achievement of results in a favorite sport. If, for example, an athlete specializes in height jumps, its special physical training will be to develop jump concerts, leg strength, dexterity. The sprinter must have highly developed speed and powerful qualities in a special ratio, denoted by the term "Sprinter Power", as well as developed high-speed endurance. The styer needs a total endurance. Fighter and gymnast requires high coordination and flexibility combined with static and dynamic power abilities.
Special physical training should be carried out in unity with general physical training. Moreover, at the initial stage, the basic physical training must prevail independently of the sport. Such training not only contributes to versatile development, but also allows you to fully reveal the abilities of a person.
Unlike the concept of "physical preparation", the concept of "physical fitness" is the result of physical training. For students of higher educational institutions, physical fitters are standardized. In addition, with an increase in the number of tests in physical fitness, the possibility of freedom of choice of those exercises that are better managed to be engaged in the execution of which it can achieve great success. And these are oriented control standards on five physical qualities that included in the draft federal component of the state educational standard.
Exemplary tests reflecting the level of physical qualities:
- speed (run by 30, 60 or 100 m)
- Dexterity (jumping through the rope, throwing up a tennis ball in 1 minute at the beginning with his left hand, then right and simultaneously tossing up with two hands of tennis balls with a running distance of 30 meters (the number of times is estimated));
- Forces (pulling in Wiste, flexion and extension of hands in the stop lying, lifting and lowering the body from the position lying on the back, squats, jump in length, jump in length);
- endurance (running at 1000, 2000, 3000 m);
- Flexibility (the slope of the body forward from the main rack, standing on the elevation, the connection of the hands, one hand over the shoulder, the other behind the back, slopes to the sides, arms along the body.